Domestic Military Intelligence Is Back
Code Name of the Week: Cornerstone
Yesterday, Walter Pincus reported
in The Washington Post about the Defense
Department's Counterintelligence Field Activity (CIFA), certainly one of the
more mysterious Pentagon agencies, and one that is at the center of the Defense
Department's expanded programs aimed at gathering and analyzing intelligence
within the United States.
Proposals, Pincus said,"would transform CIFA from an
office that coordinates Pentagon security efforts -- including protecting
military facilities from attack -- to one that also has authority to
investigate crimes within the United States such as treason, foreign or
terrorist sabotage or even economic espionage."
Well, CIFA already has these authorities, has its own
agents, and collects information on common American citizens under the guise of
"sabotage" and "force protection" threats to the military. Since 9/11, functions that were previously
intended to protect U.S. forces overseas from terrorism and protecti U.S.
secrets from spies have been combined in one super-intelligence function that
constitutes the greatest threat to U.S. civil liberties since the domestic
spying days of the 1970's.
On May 2, 2003, Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz signed a memorandum (large pdf) directing the military to collect and report "non-validated threat information" relating to U.S. military forces, installations or missions. His memorandum followed from the establishment of the Domestic Threat Working Group after 9/11, the intent of which was to create a mechanism to share low-level domestic "threat information" between the military and intelligence agencies.
- Non-specific threats
- Test of security
- Unusual repetitive activity
- Bomb threats
- Other suspicious activity
According to a classified Standing Joint Force Headquarters-North
document on "intelligence sharing" dated July 20, 2005, and obtained
exclusively by this washingtonpost.com blogger, collection of intelligence on U.S.
persons is allowed by military intelligence units if there is a reason to
believe the U.S. person is:
- "Connected to international terrorist activities;
- Connected to international narcotics;
- Connected to foreign intelligence;
- A threat to DoD installations, property, or persons; or,
- The subject of authorized counterintelligence."
In other words, some military gumshoe or over-zealous
commander just has to decide that someone is "a threat to" the military.
Under well-worn intelligence oversight rules, military intelligence units are restricted from
collecting information concerning "U.S. persons," but the post 9/11
reality is these restrictions are increasingly meaningless.
What is more, the post 9/11 redefinition of "counter-intelligence"
opens the way for the military to conduct domestic surveillance. Military law enforcement organizations such
as the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), the Army Criminal
Investigations Division (CID) and its domestic counter-intelligence brigade, and
the Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) have increasing domestic duties
that straddle the world between "counter-intelligence" and law
enforcement, and are the main sources for TALON reporting to CIFA.
Ever since 1998, when Secretary of Defense William Cohen
went crazy building up a cover-your-ass force protection policy, the law enforcement arms have increasingly moved from
traditional counter-intelligence missions of going after enemy spies to going
after, well, whomever they deem as a "threat" to the military. Overseas, this makes sense, but in the United
States, the counter-intelligence/force protection loophole is ripe for abuse.
The "counter-intelligence" function of CIFA itself
is couched to encompass "force protection," according to DOD Directive
Number 5105.67, "Counterintelligence Field Activity (DoD CIFA),"
February 19, 2002. What is more, the
directive states that "in carrying out the mission of these elements, the
Director of the DoD CIFA may employ law enforcement personnel, in whole or in
part, as appropriate, to carry out the DoD CIFA's law enforcement functions…"
CIFA is charged with correlating TALON information with
all-source intelligence and providing "fused" products. In this regard, fused products are raw law
enforcement and FBI reports relating to suspected domestic terrorism, NSA
intercepts, and CIA and military intelligence reports that might bear upon
Cornerstone is the new repository for this combined intelligence
and TALON threat reporting. It originated in May 2000, when Deputy Secretary of
Defense John Hamre established a requirement to track foreign visitors to DOD
installations. Post 9/11, the database came
to encompass not intelligence and investigative leads to support foreign
visitor tracking, but also "insider threat" information,
counter-intelligence, law enforcement support, counter-terrorism, and force
protection. Under a new program --
Project Voyager -- the Cornerstone database is being improved to support
coordination with local, state and federal law enforcement.
When one looks at the seven TALON reporting categories, it is clear that what is to be collected is broad enough to encompass virtually anything the military feels is a threat. "Non-specific threats" and "other suspicious activity" can be interpreted to include just about anything.
"Elicitation," for instance, is defined in TALON
"Any attempts to obtain security-related or military-specific information by anyone who does not have the appropriate security clearance and the need-to-know. Elicitation attempts may be made by mail, fax, telephone, by computer, or in person."
Ask questions of a military person about their tour in Iraq, protest about the presence of military recruiters on campus or at the Mall, engage in lawful protest against the Iraq war, and you could find yourself in the Cornerstone database, forever a "suspect." Tomorrow I'll write about how this is really happening.
CIFA not only manages the Cornerstone database, but it also
"makes the determination whether to release information about U.S. persons
to analysts." In other words, CIFA as both a "counter-intelligence"
and law enforcement arm of the Pentagon bridges between two worlds, and is
allowed to obtain and store information about American citizens. I hope that there are a lot of lawyers on the
And there's the rub. One can hardly find out who the director of this organization is, let
alone how many people work there are what they are really doing.
Tomorrow: What They Are Really Doing.
By William M. Arkin | November 29, 2005; 10:28 AM ET
Code Name of the Week
, Domestic Role of the Military
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